Research

Welcome to our research pages! Within we provide abstracts of current studies with commentary, and guidance for researchers working on new projects. We also include a comparison of commonly used tools based on costs, practice expense/benefits, psychometric foundations, etc. (The Research tab on the left will direct you to pages with links, etc.)

After reading through these pages, if you have a study to share or need to discuss a project please contact us.  For research projects we encourage you to use PEDS Online because its scoring is accurate and automated, the site includes PEDS, PEDS:Developmental Milestones, and the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers, provides referral letters when needed, parent take-home summary reports, and generates an exportable database of results that can be concatenated with other measures/study protocols.  We can also license digital copies of our measures as needed. 

Developmental Screening—Evaluation of an m-Health Version of the Parents Evaluation Developmental Status Tools

PEDS Online used in South Africa mobile environment for childhood screening. Original Research Developmental Screening—Evaluation of...

Delayed Child Development in Rural Ghana: A Baseline Evaluation

Methods: Cognitive stimulation during the first five years of life is critical for proper childhood development. Prior community evaluatio...

Developmental Screening of Refugees: A Qualitative Study

By 2014, 59.5 million people worldwide were forcibly displaced from their homes and living as refugees or stateless people. Over 50% of these individu...

Delayed Childhood Development in Rural Ghana: A Baseline Evaluation

UCLA Global STTP - PEDS-DM 082716 1641.pdf

Celebrating young Indigenous Australian Children

Celebrating young Indigenous Australian children's speech and language competence. This paper describes 692 Indigenous Australian children's language ...

Multilingualism and speech-language competence in early childhood: Impact on academic and social-emotional outcomes at school

Multilingualism and speech-language competence in early childhood: Impact on academic and social-emotional outcomes at school Early Childhood Resea...

SDBP Plenary Sessions: Parent Developmental Concerns, Provider Response to Conerns, and Delays in Diagnosis for Children with Austism and Other Developmental Disorders

Parent Developmental Concerns, Provider Response to Conerns, and Delays in Diagnosis for Children with Austism and Other Developmental Disorders SD...

Using Translated PEDS to Detect Developmental Disabilities in Malaysia

Using Translated PEDS to Detect Developmental Disabilities in Sibu, Malaysia ICP poster 16.8.13.pdfThe objective of this study was to determine the s...

Chapter 14 Developmental/Behavioral Screening, Frances P. Glascoe

Chapter 14 audio

Children with Developmental Delay in Regular Pre-school Groups: New Procedures of Identification, Assessment, & Support

Doctoral dissertation by Snezana B. Ilic, University of Belgrade, 2015: Timely detection of children with disabilities, early identification of prima...

Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS): Its Chinese Translation, Validation and Feasibility

Title: Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS): Its Chinese Translation, Validation and Feasibility Running Head: PEDS: Chinese T...

The 211LA Developmental Screening and Care Coordination Program

Author: Digby Diehl Title: The 211LA Developmental Screening and Care Coordination Program Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Anthology: To...

A systematic review of the prevalence of parental concerns measured by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) indicating developmental risk.

Woolfenden S, Eapen V, Williams K, Hayen A, Spencer N, Kemp L. A systematic review of the prevalence of parental concerns measured by the Parents&rsqu...

Evidence-Based Early Detection of Developmental-Behavioral Problems in Primary Care: What to Expect and How to Do It

Glascoe FP. Evidence-Based Early Detection of Developmental-Behavioral Problems in Primary Care: What to Expect and How to Do It. Journal of Pediatric...

Pediatric Response to Court-Mandated Medicaid Behavioral Screening in Massachusetts.

Van Cleave J, Morales DR, Perrin JM. Pediatric Response to Court-Mandated Medicaid Behavioral Screening in Massachusetts. Journal of Developmental and...

Summary of PEDS Research from Glascoe FP. Collaborating with Parents. 2nd Edition. Nolensville, Tennessee: PEDSTest.com, LLC, 2013

Summary of PEDS Research from Glascoe FP. Collaborating with Parents. 2nd Edition. Nolensville, Tennessee: PEDSTest.com, LLC, 2013. PEDS has been ...

How early do parent concerns predict later autism diagnosis?

Ozonoff S, Young GS, Steinfeld MB, Hill MM, Cook I, Hutman T, Macari S, Rogers SJ, Sigman M. How early do parent concerns predict later autism diagn...

How Early Do Parent Concerns Predict Later Autism Diagnosis?

How Early Do Parent Concerns Predict Later Autism Diagnosis? Ozonoff, Sally PhD; Young, Gregory S. PhD; Steinfeld, Mary Beth MD; Hill, Monique M...

Parental Perception of the Utility of the PEDS Questionnaire

Title: Parental Perception of the Utility of the PEDS Questionnaire Authors: Claudia G. Lares, Lina Huerta-Saenz, Michelle King, Michael J. Janeczko...

PARENTS’ EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL STATUS – VALIDATION AND FEASIBILITY OF USE OF ITS TRANSLATED MALAY AND MANDARIN VERSION

Lim Boon Chuan1, Toh Teck Hock1, Mohammad Adam bin Bujang2, Jamaiyah Haniff2, Wong See Chang1, Muhamad Rais Abdullah3, Frances Page Glascoe4   ...

SCREENING DEVELOPMENTAL DOMAINS IN PRETERM CHILDREN: DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF “PARENTS’ EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL STATUS: DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES” (PEDS:DM) ASSESSMENT LEVEL

Pritchard MA,1,2 deDassal T,1 Johnston L,3 Beller E,4 Bogossian F1, Callan S,1 Crothers C,1,2 Hovey D,1,2 Russo S,5 Cartwright D.1 1WNS., RBWH.,2UQ., ...

Interpreting Parents' Concerns About Their Children's Development With “Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)”: Culture Matters

Kiing, Jennifer S.H.; Low, Poh Sim; Chan, Yiong Huak; Neihart, Maureen. Interpreting Parents' Concerns About Their Children's Development With “...

A Comparison of Objective Standardised Parent-Administered Questionnaires to that of Subjective Screening Practices for the Early Detection of Developmental Delay in At-Risk Infants

Silva, Melinda, Davies, Vic. Johannesburg, South Africa: University of the Witwatersrand, 2010 The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and the PEDS C...

Relationship between Parenting Stress and Concerns

Credits: Robert G. Voight, Shirley K. Johnson, Michael W. Mellon, Andrew H. Hashikawa, Lynnelle J. Campeau, Arthur R. Williams, Barbara P. Yawn & Young J. Juhn
Relationship between Parenting Stress and Concerns Identified by Developmental Screening and Their Effects on Parental Medical Care-Seeking Behavior ...

Comparison of the ASQ and PEDS in Screening for Developmental Delay in Children Presenting for Primary Care

Comparison of the ASQ and PEDS in Screening for Developmental Delay in Children Presenting for Primary Care Marjolaine M. Limbos, PhD, David P. Joyc...

How Do Screening Tests Perform in Settings Serving At-risk Populations?

Citation: Glascoe FP, Macias M, Herrera P, Brixey S, Simpson P, Li S. How Do Screening Tests Perform in Settings Serving At-risk Populations?Journal o...

Sensitivity of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in speech and language screening

Credits: Borowitz KC, Glascoe FP

Improving resources for foster care

Credits: Martin ED, Altemeier WA, Hickson GB, Davis A, Glascoe FP

Accuracy of the Denver-II in developmental screening

Credits: FP Glascoe, KE Byrne, LG Ashford, KL Johnson, B Chang and B Strickland
Despite its fame, the Denver-II was never validated, tested for accuracy, and it was standardized only in Colorado. Not surprisingly, it fails to dete...

The Accuracy of Three Developmental Screening Tests

Credits: Glascoe FP, Byrne KE
Journal of Early Intervention. 1993;17(4):368-379.
Abstract Developmental screening tests are widely used for early identification but few are studied for their accuracy—the percentage of childr...

Obstacles to effective developmental surveillance: errors in clinical reasoning

Credits: Glascoe FP, Dworkin PE
Abstract Recent research and legislation support the importance of early identification and intervention for children with developmental and behavior...

Value of parents’ estimates of children’s developmental ages

Credits: Glascoe FP, Sandler H.

How parents appraise their child’s development

Credits: Glascoe FP, MacLean WE

The importance of parents’ concerns about their child’s development

Credits: Glascoe FP, Altemeier WA, MacLean WE

The importance of parents’ concerns about their child’s behavior

Credits: Glascoe FP, MacLean WE, Stone WL

The role of parents in the detection of developmental and behavioral problems

Credits: FP Glascoe and PH Dworkin

It’s not what it seems. The relationship between parents’ concerns and children with global delays

Credits: Glascoe FP

Can clinical judgment detect children with speech-language problems?

Credits: Glascoe FP
Parents' concerns, if elicited carefully, are effective at detecting speech-language problems--the most common of early childhood disabilities--and a ...

Brief Approaches to Educating Patients and Parents in Primary Care

Credits: Frances Page Glascoe, Frank Oberklaid, Paul H. Dworkin, and Franklin Trimm

Parents’ Concerns About Children’s Development: Prescreening Technique or Screening Test?

Credits: Glascoe FP

An Economic Evaluation of Four Methods for Detecting Developmental Problems

Credits: Glascoe FP, Foster FM, Wolraich ML

The value of parents’ concerns to detect and address developmental and behavioural problems

Credits: FP Glascoe , Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1999; 35 (1), 1
Half of all children with disabilities are not identified before school entry. This precludes their participation in early intervention programs that ...

Using parents’ concerns to detect and address developmental and behavioral problems

Credits: Glascoe FP
J Soc Pediatr Nurs. 1999 Jan-Mar;4(1):24-35. Using parents' concerns to detect and address developmental and behavioral problems. Glascoe FP. Depar...

National Project Implementing Developmental Screening and Referrals

Credits: King TM, Tandon SD, Macias MM, Healy JA, Duncan PM, Swigonski NL, Skipper SM, Lipkin PH. Implementing Developmental Screening and Referrals: Lessons Learned From a National Project.
PEDIATRICS. 2010; 125: 350-360 OBJECTIVES To assess the degree to which a national sample of pediatric practices could implement American Academy of ...

Documentation Status and Parental Concerns About Development in Young US Children of Mexican Origin

Credits: Alexander N. Ortega, PhDCorresponding Author Informationemail address, Sarah M. Horwitz, PhD, Hai Fang, PhD, Alice A. Kuo, MD, PhD, Steven P. Wallace, PhD, Moira Inkelas, PhD

This study illustrates increased frequency of concerns and developmental-behavioral problems in families with limited access to health care.

Validity of parents’ evaluation of developmental status (PEDS) in detecting developmental disorders in 3-12 month old infants

Credits: I Wayan Gustawan, Soetjiningsih, Soeroyo Machfudz
Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Jalan Nias, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Abstract Background: Every disorder in any developmental stage will result in alteration of the quality of human resources in the future. Early detec...

Helping parents understand developmental-behavioral screening

Credits: Marks KP, Glascoe FP.
This is the third in a series of articles in Contemporary Pediatrics devoted to early detection of children with developmental-behavioral problems, th...

Parenting Behaviors, Perceptions, and Psychosocial Risk: Impacts on Young Children's Development

Credits: Complete Reference: Glascoe FP, Leew S. Parenting Behaviors, Perceptions and Psychosocial Risk: Impact on Child Development. Pediatrics. 2010; 125: 313-319
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to assess which parenting behaviors, perceptions, and risk factors were associated with optimal versus delayed de...

Three studies from the Philippines

Credits: C. Palaraca
R Matibag, J Navarro
THE ROLE OF PARENTS’ EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL STATUS (PEDS) AS A SCREENING TOOL IN THE EARLY DETECTION OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES AND BEHA...

Identifying 4-Month-Old Infants at-Risk in Community Screening

Credits: Meade VA, Sweeney JK, Chandler LS, Woodward BJ. Identifying 4-Month-Old Infants at-Risk in Community Screening. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2009, 21; 2: 150-157.
Biosketch: Dr. Meade is faculty in the Divison of Diagnostics/Special Education within the Department of Education in Tofol, Kosrae, FSM (Micronesia) ...

Can Parental Concerns Detect Children With Behavorial Problems?

Credits: Prahbhjot MALHI, Pratibha SINGHI
ABSTRACT: Investigated the usefulness of parents' concerns about a child's behavior in the early detection of significant behavioral disturbances. 60 ...

Toward a Model for An Evidenced-Based Approach to Developmental/Behavioral Surveillance, Promotion and Patient Education.

Credits: Glascoe FP
Ambulatory Child Health, 1999, 5; 197-208
ABSTRACT Objective. To propose and preliminarily assess a model for helping providers select, based on empirical evidence, the optimal in-office deve...

Use of Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) in Population Surveys

Credits: a collection of research by various authors

Several abstracts (some submitted for publication, others previously published) using the Survey Edition of PEDS. Survey PEDS differs from (clinical) PEDS in that it eliminates all open-ended questions and includes several others questions that encourage parents to indicate concerns about their child’s global developmental-behavioral status, vision, hearing, and health.

PEDS: Developmental Milestones An Accurate Brief Tool for Surveillance and Screening

Credits: Kyle B. Brothers, Frances Page Glascoe and Nicholas S. Robertshaw. Clinical Pediatrics. 2008; 47; 271 - 279
About 16% of children have developmental-behavioral disabilities but less than one-third of the children are detected by their health care providers, ...

Assessing Health System Provision of Well-Child Care: The Promoting Healthy Development Survey

Credits: Christina Bethell, Colleen Peck, and Edward Schor

Detección precoz de problemas del desarrollo por el pediatría: Importancia de los padres.

Credits: García-Tornel S, Glascoe FP.
 Please see full article by clicking on our translations page.

Are Overreferrals on Developmental Screening Tests Really a Problem?

Credits: Glascoe, FP. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 2001, 155:54-59.
Background: Developmental screening tests, even those meeting standards for screening test accuracy, produce numerous false-positive results for 15% t...

Intelligence and achievement of children referred following sexual abuse.

Credits: JJones DA, Trudinger P, Crawford M.
Paediatric Child Health - 2004 Aug;40 (8):455-60
[with comments from Dr. Glascoe]
Jones DA, Trudinger P, Crawford M. Intelligence and achievement of children referred following sexual abuse. J Paediatr Child Health. 2004 Aug;40(8):4...

The importance of discussing parents' concerns about development: Do Parents Express Concerns Spontaneously?

Credits: Glascoe FP - Ambulatory Child Health, 1997;2:349-356.
 It is the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on the Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health1 and the authors...

Implementation Research

Five abstracts - All were presented at the Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies in Toronto, May 2007. Two are from Dr. Alison Schonwald who has created a helpful website devoted to implementation of screens focusing on all the many issues that need nailing down when starting a screening initiative

What Parent Concerns Are Predictive for Failed Critical Items on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers?

Credits: Kimberly A. Twyman, Michelle M. Macias, Frances Page Glascoe
Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2005;5:143-149
Kimberly A. Twyman, Michelle M. Macias, Frances Page Glascoe.. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charlest...

Prevalence of Developmental and Behavioral Disorders in a Pediatric Hospital

Credits: Mario Cesar Petersen, MD, MPH, David Arnold Kube, MD, Toni M. Whitaker, MD, Joyce Carolyn Graff, RN, PhD, and Frederick B. Palmer, MD
Prevalence of Developmental and Behavioral Disorders in a Pediatric Hospital
Mario Cesar Petersen, MD, MPH, David Arnold Kube, MD, Toni M. Whitaker, MD, Joyce Carolyn Graff, RN, PhD, and Frederick B. Palmer, MD
PEDIATRICS Vol. 123 No. 3 March 2009, pp. e490-e495 (doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2750) OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalenc...

Making developmental-behavior screening work in your practice

Credits: Complete Reference: Glascoe FP, Schonwald A, Trimm F, Marks K. Making Developmental-Behavioral Screening Work in Your Practice. Contemporary Pediatrics. 2009; 26(12): 38-45.

This article covers the many issues that need to be addressed before deploying quality screening tools in primary care, including why clinicians should screen for developmental-behavioral problems, why informal measures including selected items from the Denver-II don't work, how to chose an accurate screen and what tools are available, how to get staff enthused about screening, implementation planning, and billing/coding for optimal reimbursement.

PEDS and ASQ Developmental Screening Tests May Not Identify the Same Children

Credits: Pediatrics 2009;124:e640–e647
Laura Sices, MD, MS, Terry Stancin, PhD, H. Lester Kirchner, PhD,c and Howard Bauchner, MD
OBJECTIVE: In analyzing data from a larger study, we noticed significant disagreement between results of 2 commonly used developmental screening tools ...

Screening Strategies for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care

Credits: Pinto-Martin J. et al, JDBP, 2008; 29(5) 345 – 350 (followed by a published letter to the editor and quoted below from Glascoe FP and Squires J, JDBP 2009; 30, 174).
Pinto-Martin et al’s study of whether a broad-band developmental screen, i.e., “Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status” (PEDS), detects children ...

Routine Developmental Screening Implemented in Urban Primary Care

Credits: PEDIATRICS Vol. 123 No. 2 February 2009, pp. 660-668 (doi:10.1542/peds.
Alison Schonwald, MDa,b,c, Noelle Huntington, PhDa,b,c, Eugenia Chan, MD, MPHa,b,c, Wanessa Risko, MD, DScb,c and Carolyn Bridgemohan, MDa,c

Using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status in 2 urban pediatric practices.

Effect of the PEDS Screener and Parent Activation Video on Parent-Physician Communication About Child Development

Credits: L. Sices, A. Keilman, H.L. Kirchner, D. Roberts, T. Stancin.. Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA; Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA; Pediatrics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.
Presentation to the Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, May 20
BACKGROUND: The AAP recommends periodic administration of standardized developmental screens during well child visits to facilitate identification of ...

Evaluation Rates of Children Identified by Routine Developmental Screening

Credits: Alison Schonwald, Noelle Huntington, Kirsten Witt, Taylor Silver, Joanne Cox.. Division of Developmental Medicine, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.
Presentation to the Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, May, 2008
BACKGROUND: The AAP recommends routine primary care screening to identify children at risk for developmental concerns. However, there is no published ...

Study Report: Screening for developmental problems among preschool-aged children.

The Community Perinatal Care (CPC) Study was initiated by the Conception to Age Five Working Group of The Calgary Children’s Initiative. The working g...

Can parents' concerns identify children likely to have autism-spectrum disorder?

Credits: Glascoe FP, Macias M, Wegner LM. Robertshaw RS
Below are two abstracts of papers using two screens: PEDS and the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers. An analysis of both is included at the e...

Parents' evaluation of developmental status in children born with a birthweight of 1250 g or less

Credits: Pritchard MA, Colditz PB, Beller EM
Queensland Optimising Preterm Infant Outcomes Group.
Paediatr Child Health. 2005 Apr;41(4):191-6.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between parental reporting of development of children born very preterm using the Parents' Evaluation of Develo...

How well do parents' concerns identify children with behavioral and emotional problems

This study was undertaken to determine which parental concerns are most associated with significant behavioral/emotional problems and the extent to wh...

PEDS in the Australian day-care setting: Developmental concerns of parents and carers

Coghlan D, Kiing JS, Wake M J Paediatr Child Health 2003 Jan-Feb; 39(1):49-54

Does 'Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)' at School Entry Predict Language, Achievement and Quality of Life 2 Years Later?

Credits: Melissa Wake; Bibi Gerner; Susan Gallagher
Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2005;5:143-149
OBJECTIVE: We studied the accuracy of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at school entry in predicting academic, language, and h...

Role of Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status in detecting developmental delay in young children

Credits: Prahbhjot MALHI1, Pratibha SINGHI1
Indian Pediatrics 2002; 39:271-275
[with comments and response from Dr. Glascoe]
The importance of early identification of children with developmental delay has emerged in recent years as a matter of growing concern among pediatric...

Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents’ concerns

Credits: Glascoe FP
Abstract Half of all children with disabilities are not identified before school entrance, which precludes their participation in early intervention ...
How to Reference Us How to Reference Us

How to Reference PEDS and PEDS:DM

When citing PEDS Tools, their psychometric support, or the content of this website in your articles, abstracts and other writings please use the following:

To cite PEDS Tools:

Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Nolensville, TN: PEDSTest.com, LLC. 2013. (www.pedstest.com)

Glascoe FP, Robertshaw NS. PEDS: Developmental Milestones. (PEDS:DM). Nolensville, TN: PEDSTest.com, LLC .2016 (www.pedstest.com)

Glascoe FP, Robertshaw NS. PEDS Online. Brentwood, TN: PEDStest Online, LLC. 2016 (www.pedstest.com/online)

To cite content on this website, (www.pedstest.com):

Glascoe FP, PEDStest.com. Nolensville, TN: PEDSTest.com, LLC. 2016 (www.pedstest.com)


 To cite psychometric and research support for PEDS Tools:

Glascoe FP. Collaborating with Parents: Using Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) to Detect and Address Developmental and Behavioral Problems. 2nd Edition. Nolensville, TN: PEDSTest.com, LLC. 2013. (www.pedstest.com)

Glascoe FP, Robertshaw NS. PEDS: Developmental Milestones. (PEDS:DM): A tool for Surveillance and Screening, Professionals' Manual. Nolensville, TN: PEDSTest.com,LLC. 2016. (www.pedstest.com)


Dr. Glascoe and her colleagues have done a great deal of research on PEDS and its accuracy. On our research pages you'll find abstracts and links to most articles. We are happy to post new publications so please use the "contact us" link send abstracts or complete papers and we'll be happy to add those.